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17HistoryFROM GERMAN PROTECTORATE TO INDEPENDENCECameroon, a formerly French trust territory became independent on January 1, 1960. The Republic of Cameroon is then created.The political entity that joined the international sovereignty according to the UN was built over a rather short period of seventy-five years. From 14th July when Gustav Nachtigal hoisted German flag in Douala to 1918 when Germany was forced out from Cameroon, the territory is under Berlin protectorate. During the treaty of Versailles (France) on 28th June 1919, Germany renounces sovereignty over Cameroon and rati- fies the treaty that states in article 119: “Germany renounces in favour of the principal allied and associated powers all her rights and titles over her overseas possessions”.THE MANDATE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONSOn 10th July 1919, Cameroon is split up between France and Britain. Britain administered the wes- tern part of the country (a fifth of the territory) whe- reas France ruled over the eastern part (four fifths).This administration is done under League of Nations (LON) supervision: it is a mandate sys- tem. In Cameroon under French administration,two major events occurred during the mandate at social level: the institution of indigenous status in 1917, later abolished by Brazzaville Conference and the setting up on 18th December 1944 of USCC (Union of Confederate Trade Unions of Cameroon) affiliated with French General Labour Confederation (CGT).USCC was the first Cameroonian trade union and the first very influential extra-customary institution with its Secretary General Ndounokong Alphonse and Deputies Secretaries General Assale Charles and Um Nyobe Ruben.From 1939 to 1946, Cameroon, under French trusteeship answered General de Gaulle’s call to participate in the World War II. Just after the war, everything turned upside down. The year 1946 is a pivotal period in Cameroon’s evolu- tion towards independence. On 7th May 1946, Lamine Gueye Law acknowledged the citizenship of nationals from overseas colonies including Cameroon.On 5th October 1946, the suffrage on the basis of property qualification is instituted. A French Order constituted on 25th October 1946 crea- ted the Representative Assembly of Cameroon (ARCAM) with two sessions: 18 Frenchmen and 32 Cameroonians elected by two differentLES ATOUTS ECONOMIQUES DU CAMEROUN

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