Page 298 - Atouts-Cameroun-2017
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298LES ATOUTS ECONOMIQUES DU CAMEROUNSOME MASTERED TECHNOLOGIESAmong the technologies mastered we may num- ber the conduct of nurseries and fruit orchards (grafting, cuttings, rapid multiplication of pineap- ple releases, layering of plum tree), all these tech- niques serving to significantly prompt the start of production (3 to 4 years only for grafted or laye- red fruit sheds against 7-10 years for seedlings).One may also mention old cocoa regeneration techniques (size and grafting of regrowth...) in possibly making varietal conversions with an early return to fruit set. The production of improved seed oil palms and grafted rubber plants are other tech- nologies beside the control of the management of major diseases and pests that are serious produc- tion constraints. We should point out that for these various speculations, mastering the processing of post-harvest products as well as the by-products development routes which give added value, is a matter for the Scientific Coordination responsible for the Production Systems.Other mastered technologies include forestry techniques of the local or imported species, sixty local species and ten species introduced in the Sudano-Sahelian zone, five local species and a dozen exotic species in humid savannah as well as the main species of timber of the floristic Congo-Guinean zone (South Cameroon forest). The development of pine plantations (Pinusoocarpa by its productivity in the order of 26 m3 ha and P. kesiya) and eucalyptus in the humid savannah above sea level is an indicator of the mastery forestry techniques of these spe- cies. Many private woodlots therefore came to being for the production of posts (whose soleIRAD’s office in Yaoundeimpregnation factory is located in Bafoussam) and poles, sometimes to the detriment of the less profitable coffee plantations of the moment.SOME STRIKING AND VALUABLE RESULTSIRAD has a good record with regard to results obtain in recent five years. On the topic, we should mention the increased productivity of the cocoa and coffee trees. Besides, the introduction in its collections of more than 30 international clones resistant to Black Pod Disease of cocoa, and the development of four hybrid and early-frui- ting varieties (production from 18 months after planting) resistant to BPD. Regarding parcels implemented, 4 ha of clone trials and cocoa hybrids were planted in Station.Furthermore, various control methods have been identified against coffee berry disease that causes loss of production of about 60%, that is 480 to 660 kg of marketable coffee per hectare. The practice of shading with fruit trees (avocado, mango, kola, “black fruits”, etc.) enables to reduce these loss of crops by half, a gain of 240 to 330 kg per ha of marketable coffee. The prac- tice is also a way of diversifying farm income compatible with coffee growing.Some fruit species were selected and are distribu- ted based on agro-ecological zones. The rubber research work led to the development of suitable operating systems for a number of plant material introduced in Cameroon. This enabled to increase the life of producing fields (25 to> 30 years), etc. We should point out that IRAD has worn 4 gold medals at the International Exhibition of Innovations in Geneva, April 2016 n

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