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343Costs of Factors of ProductionINTRODUCTIONBroken into two, this section is meant to present the different factors costs, firstly indicating the tax and customs system as well as the main rates, taxes, customs duties and tax categories applica- ble in Cameroon.The second part, which is more technical exposes in details the principal tax procedures applicable by all public and private investors and administrations.For better understanding, these rates are put toge- ther in a table revealed at the end this section. Rates indicated may go a number of modifica- tions during the year. You will also find at the end of this manual, in the chapter “Practical Information”, all details about the administrations concerned, and of possible changes.TAX SYSTEM AND CUSTOMS DUTIESThe Cameroon customs system is that of the UDEAC (Central African States Customs and Economic Union), and it is explicit in the “customs tariffs” of UDEAC reviewed by the new tax and cus- toms reform applicable within the CEMAC (Central African Economic and Monetary Community).The tax and customs system of CEMAC (Central African Economic and Monetary Community) has for a long time been characterized serious com- plexities and inequitably excessive protection spread among the different activities.In fact, the complexity of the protective pricing policy mechanism (vast number of rates, tax categories, vast number of methods for measu- ring customs values, all kinds of exonerations) and frequent use of non-pricing protective tools (quantitative restrictions) made almost impossible to assess the economic impact and protective sys- tem so much that it could not be used as an effi- cient economic policy tool.Moreover, such complex systems could not be properly applied in countries where the capacity of the administrations concerned is weak to excess. Not only did these tax and customs provi- sions give poor result, but they encouraged fraud and smuggling, without mentioning divers illegal practices which prevented fair competition.This diagnosis is somehow a caricature of the situation existing in Cameroon for decades, due to its nearness to Nigeria, a country where on the contrary customs procedures are simplified and where tariffs are lower.LES ATOUTS ECONOMIQUES DU CAMEROUN

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