Page 22 - Atouts Economiques Cameroun-2019-GB
P. 22

 22
                 LES ATOUTS ECONOMIQUES DU CAMEROUN
landscape, the Mandara mountainous massif appears in the west up to the Nigerian frontier. Average altitude of this whole is 700 m, but there are also summits reaching 1 224 m height like the Rhumsiki Needles and at times even 1 442 m (Hossere). The southern Cameroon vast pla- teau spreads out below the Cameroon ridge: This morphological unity consists of series of monotonous convex hills which altitude varies between 650 and 900m, and dulled or harde- ned interfluves.
A few accidents occur above these endless hills to break the monotony (Ntem, Mbam, Yaoundé mas- sifs and Yoko inselbergs) with peaks above 1200 m. In the south-east, the plateau lowers smoothly to reach a peneplain to an average altitude of 500/800 m and ends in the Congo basin. As for the south-west part of the southern plateau of Cameroon, it goes as far as the coastal plains.
These plains are much smaller and do not exceed 150 km width. Between the Pacific Ocean and the south Cameroon plateau, there are widely spread plains and barely warped, consisting of sedimentary grounds covered or not by basalt flows. These plains are dotted with abundant and small volcanic molehills in the region, notably in the south area of Tombel and Kumba. They penetrate like a gulf along the Sanaga, in the south edge of southern Cameroonian plateau. The continuity is stopped by Mount Cameroon. In the south part of River Sanaga, the coastal plain loses its magnitude while at the same time it rises and passes almost imperceptibly to a low plateau.
VEGETATION
A couple of elephants in the savannah in Cameroon
The Cameroonian vegetation is a summary of that of Africa, with forest, savannah and steppe in different forms.
FORESTS
The large forest stretching from the Gulf of Guinea to East Africa covers the entire southern part of Cameroon up to the Adamawa plateau. However, it does not have a uniform appearance all over the land.
It is thus possible to distinguish subdivisions in relation to the neighbourhood of the ocean, with altitude, palaeography, climatic and ecological factors. Along the coast from the frontiers with Nigeria, down the Atlantic coast and running east along the northern frontiers of Cameroon, is spread out the humid dense forest, which can be divided into three categories:
Coastal forest
As suggested by its name, the forest covers the entire area of the Atlantic coastline from Mudemba (in its northern part) to Campo (in the south).It, however, penetrates tens of kilometres from the Cameroonian shores and finds its eas- tern limits to Kumba and Edea through Yabassi. It has not always been able to reach inshore because of considerable mangroves, like in Tiko and Douala or because of sandy fields in Kribi and Campo, which stop its species from gro- wing. Main typical features of this forest are constituted with: Sacogottis gabonensis (bidou),






















































































   20   21   22   23   24