Page 238 - Atouts Economiques Cameroun-2019-GB
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Ministry of Environment,
Nature Protection and Sustainable Development
The Ministry of the Environment, Nature Protection and Sustainable Development is responsible for the implementation of Government's policy as regards environment and also works for the rational management of Cameroon's rich biodiversity...
Cameroon is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of biodiversity. The country is ranked fourth in the world in terms of floral species richness, and fifth in terms of wildlife diversity. It is considered one of the world's biodiversity key points the most intact and richest. It is therefore a treasure that has to be preserved, that for which the Government of Cameroon is effectively tackling.
Actually, the value of biodiversity is enormous; it includes food security and a real richness in phar- macopoeia. The pharmaceutical and even cos- metic industries derive most of their resources from genetic diversity, as well as from traditional knowledge systems on the use of biological and genetic resources.
Besides, in Cameroon, the unique and beautiful landscapes of the forest, marine ecosystems, the Sahel, the savannah and mountain ecosystems represent very high quality attractions for the tou- rist industry. All the more reason to save it.
Cameroon's rich biodiversity, to be specific includes 8,300 (eight thousand three hundred) plant species - with 69 new species discovered in the 2012-2013 inventories. Of these species, 595 are strictly endemic in Cameroon. As for wildlife, it includes 335 species of mammals, 913 species of birds and 542 species of fish.
However, 10% of floral species and 38 wildlife species are threatened with extinction. For exam- ple, fifty floral species in selected hotspots of mountainous and forest ecosystems have already disappeared and highlands of the North-West have lost 30% of their floral wealth.
It should be remembered that the planet, under the auspices of the United Nations, adopted in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro, a Convention on Biological Diversity, with the commitment to conserve and sustainably use this biodiversity,
and further ensure equitable sharing of benefits arising from its use. The Convention entered into force in 1993, and adopted three Protocols: Biosafety; Benefit-sharing and the Additional Protocol on Liability and Redress for Damage.
Cameroon, a signatory and active participant in the Convention on Biodiversity, has provided a satisfactory governance response to ensure com- pliance with its commitments under the Convention. This includes the establishment of all institutions to enable at national level the imple- mentation of the objectives of the Convention. Therefore, MINEPDED, as the umbrella organiza- tion, proceeded to the designation of National Focal Points of the Convention, the three Protocols and the thematic areas of the Convention, and especially the Clearing Houses.
As an illustration, we have the National Scientific and Political Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services that is an acknowledgment of the importance of scientific research and results for improving biodiversity policies development.
In terms of policy, a multitude of instruments and tools have been adopted, as well as texts. In addition, strategic options and priorities for bio- diversity in Cameroon have been continuously developed and revised as part of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. In the end, Cameroon is now recognized for its important efforts to develop an arsenal of legal instruments that are supposed to ensure the protection of bio- diversity, in particular the Framework Law on the Environment, Law on the Forest, Wildlife and Fisheries, the Biotechnology Act and other rela- ted sectoral legislation.
To this can be added that under the leadership of the Government, Cameroon is now one of the few countries in the world currently conducting a scientific and political assessment of biodiversity and ecosystem services on the basis of a concep- tual framework of evaluations adopted by the UN Scientific and Policy Assessment Platform.

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