Page 42 - Atouts Economiques Cameroun-2019-GB
P. 42

that govern the Republic of Cameroon: it is a “decentralized unitary State, one and indivisible, secular, democratic and social” (Article 1). Cameroon is a multicultural and multilinguistic State that takes into account its history and, as such shall have English and French as official lan- guages of equal value. The motto of the Republic of Cameroon is: Peace-Work-Fatherland. Article 2 of the Constitution provides that “National sovereignty belongs to the people of Cameroon who exercise it either through the President of the Republic and members of Parliament, or by way of referendum.” Authorities in charge of mana- ging the State derive their powers from the peo- ple through universal direct or indirect polls. The vote is equal and secret. The voting age is 20.
These principles being affirmed, the Cameroonian Constitution establishes the three major powers of State: the executive, the legisla- tive and the judiciary power. The Constitution thus empowers the main institutions of the State.
The President of the Republic is the keystone of Cameroon political system. He is the Head of State and embodies national unity. The Constitution confers on him very important powers: he defines the policy of the Nation, ensures respect for the Constitution, and ensures through his arbitration the regular functioning of public authorities. He is the guarantor of National independence, integrity of the territory, permanence and continuity of the State, respect of international treaties and agreements (Article 5). The central position occupied by the President
The President of the Republic and Government members gathered for a council of ministers
of the Republic within the Cameroon institutions is based on the fact that he is the elected represen- tative of the entire Nation.
In accordance with Law N0 2008/001 / of 14 April 2008 amending and supplementing some provisions of Law N0 96/06/ of 18 January 1996 on revision of the Constitution of 2 June 1972, the President of the Republic of Cameroon is elected for a term of 7 years and is eligible for reappointment. The Head of the Cameroonian executive is elected through a one round direct universal polls and a majority of the votes cast.
Article 8 of the Constitution provides that the President of the Republic represents the State in all acts of public life. He is the Head of the Armed Forces. He ensures the internal and exter- nal security of the national territory.
He shall accredit ambassadors, and extra-ordi- nary envoys of foreign powers are accredited to him. He promulgates laws. He exercises the right of pardon after the opinion of the Higher Judicial Council. He exercises regulatory power.
The President of the Republic creates and orga- nizes the public services of the State. He appoints civil and military officials. He may dis- solve the National Assembly (Article 8).
The President of the Republic may declare by decree a state of emergency which gives him special powers. He can also by decree proclaim a state of emergency and take in this respect all measures he deems necessary (Article 9).
Mr. Paul BIYA, the President of the Republic

   40   41   42   43   44