Page 48 - Atouts Economiques Cameroun-2019-GB
P. 48

under the responsibility of the State and which to their local authorities and; so that the elected local authorities may know the limits of their res- pective areas of jurisdiction.
Actually, the 1996 Constitution, in its article 55, specifies that “regional and local authorities have the mission to promote the economic, social, health, educational, cultural and sports develop- ment.” It was therefore impossible allocate blocks of homogeneous skills among communities, but the approach consisted in a subtle split.
The proposed system is clear, orderly, and res- pects the principle of subsidiarity, that is to say, the exercise of a jurisdiction at the most appro- priate territorial level. As an example, the promo- tion of national languages exercised at the regio- nal level and civil status at the municipality level. A concept of “communal, community or regional interest” is also introduced to circumscribe the scope of intervention of each type of community. But the complementarity of territorial policies, with in addition that of the State, bring a certain complexity that may lead to think that no map- ping will ever be entirely satisfactory.
For the division of jurisdictions between local and regional authorities does not mean absence of partnership, but rather synergy and pursuit of common objectives, each level having specific tools and means. Sharing of jurisdictions does not mean independence of institutions. Sharing does not mean separation. The State and local authorities are a consubstantial couple. This logic allows the Government to preserve National poli- cies, including national solidarity, diplomacy, defense, civil liberties, general security, currency, maintaining major economic balances, definition of social rights, justice, research, aviation and shipping, part of land use, nationalized utilities.
The Government intends to consolidate national unity, because in Cameroon, decentralization is not total autonomy nor federalism or indepen- dence. Under the principle of subsidiarity, the aim is to exercise the most appropriate powers at territorial level. Decentralization is the exercise of powers by local and regional authorities within the framework of free administration by elected councils. This autonomy entrusted communities is designed within a framework set by the laws. Therefore, he who is elected to the Board exer- cises his responsibility within the framework of a policy of the Nation, without necessarily sharing all political options taken by the State. As a local administrator, he must comply faithfully. This is part of the public service ethics in Cameroon.
The Government ensures that this subordination of functions should not be confused with that of a hierarchical system. This implies that political
The premises of the national civil service
power is exerted on local authorities only through the law. Thus, within each sectorial policy, the law gives elected authorities rights, imposes duties; assigns targets; lays down rules. It therefore defines a “National policy" whose implementation is entrusted to the decen- tralized Government.
It is in this spirit that the first decentralization laws were drafted. They thus provided a review of legality, the possibility of resorting to an adminis- trative Judge, seized by the Community or the State, to ensure the legality of acts, an exceptio- nal nature to automatic substitution, a guarantee of transparency for the relations between local officials and the supervisory authorities.
With an increase in shared responsibilities obtai- ned by the decentralization process, we will benefit from democratic advance. This is both an act of confidence in Cameroonian citizens, in their ability to manage themselves and choose their representatives, and trust to elected officials who conduct their territorial development policies according to the guidelines they have chosen, with motivation and concern for good gover- nance. Decentralization also offers a democratic breakthrough by suppressing municipalities refer- red to as special regime municipalities whose municipal executive was headed by a Government Delegate; a principle which now stands for the urban communities only.

   46   47   48   49   50